from the war on poverty to the war on crime the making of mass incarceration in america

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From The War On Poverty To The War On Crime

Author : Elizabeth Hinton
ISBN : 9780674737235
Genre : History
File Size : 25. 78 MB
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How did the land of the free become the home of the world’s largest prison system? Elizabeth Hinton traces the rise of mass incarceration to an ironic source: not the War on Drugs of the Reagan administration but the War on Crime that began during Johnson’s Great Society at the height of the civil rights era.

The First Civil Right

Author : Naomi Murakawa
ISBN : 9780199892808
Genre : Law
File Size : 43. 16 MB
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"The explosive rise in the U.S. incarceration rate in the second half of the twentieth century, and the racial transformation of the prison population from mostly white at mid-century to sixty-five percent black and Latino in the present day, is a trend that cannot easily be ignored. Many believe that this shift began with the "tough on crime" policies advocated by Republicans and southern Democrats beginning in the late 1960s, which sought longer prison sentences, more frequent use of the death penalty, and the explicit or implicit targeting of politically marginalized people. In The First Civil Right, Naomi Murakawa inverts the conventional wisdom by arguing that the expansion of the federal carceral state-a system that disproportionately imprisons blacks and Latinos-was, in fact, rooted in the civil-rights liberalism of the 1940s and early 1960s, not in the period after. Murakawa traces the development of the modern American prison system through several presidencies, both Republican and Democrat. Responding to calls to end the lawlessness and violence against blacks at the state and local levels, the Truman administration expanded the scope of what was previously a weak federal system. Later administrations from Johnson to Clinton expanded the federal presence even more. Ironically, these steps laid the groundwork for the creation of the vast penal archipelago that now exists in the United States. What began as a liberal initiative to curb the mob violence and police brutality that had deprived racial minorities of their first civil right - physical safety - eventually evolved into the federal correctional system that now deprives them, in unjustly large numbers, of another important right: freedom. The First Civil Right is a groundbreaking analysis of root of the conflicts that lie at the intersection of race and the legal system in America." -- Publisher's description.

The New Jim Crow

Author : Michelle Alexander
ISBN : 9781595588197
Genre : Law
File Size : 80. 4 MB
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Argues that the War on Drugs and policies that deny convicted felons equal access to employment, housing, education, and public benefits create a permanent under caste based largely on race.

Black Silent Majority

Author : Michael Javen Fortner
ISBN : 9780674496101
Genre : Law
File Size : 20. 39 MB
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Aggressive policing and draconian sentencing have disproportionately imprisoned millions of African Americans for drug-related offenses. Michael Javen Fortner shows that in the 1970s these punitive policies toward addicts and pushers enjoyed the support of many working-class and middle-class blacks, angry about the chaos in their own neighborhoods.

The Condemnation Of Blackness

Author : Khalil Gibran Muhammad
ISBN : 0674035976
Genre : History
File Size : 88. 96 MB
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"The Idea of Black Criminality was crucial to the making of modern urban America. Khalil Gibran Muhammad chronicles how, when, and why modern notions of black people as an exceptionally dangerous race of criminals first emerged. Well known are the lynch mobs and racist criminal justice practices in the South that stoked white fears of black crime and shaped the contours of the New South. In this illuminating book, Muhammad shifts our attention to the urban North as a crucial but overlooked site for the production and dissemination of those ideas and practices." "Following the 1890 census - the first to measure the generation of African Americans born after slavery - crime statistics, new migration and immigration trends, and symbolic references to America as the promised land were woven into a cautionary tale about the exceptional threat black people posed to modern urban society. Excessive arrest rates and overrepresentation in northern prisons were seen by many whites - liberals and conservatives, northerners and southerners - as indisputable proof of blacks' inferiority. What else but pathology could explain black failure in the land of opportunity? Social scientists and reformers used crime statistics to mask and excuse anti-black racism, violence, and discrimination across the nation, especially in the urban North." "The Condemnation of Blackness is the most thorough historical account of the enduring link between blackness and criminality in the making of modern urban America. It is a startling examination of why the echoes of America's Jim Crow past continue to resonate in "color-blind" crime rhetoric today."--BOOK JACKET.

Prisons Of Poverty

Author : Loïc J. D. Wacquant
ISBN : 9780816639007
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 58. 4 MB
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In this title, the author examines how penal policies emanating from the United States have spread thoughout the world. The author argues that the policies have their roots in a network of Reagan-era conservative think tanks, which used them as weapons in their crusade to dismantle the welfare state and, in effect, criminalise poverty.

A Country Called Prison

Author : Mary Looman
ISBN : 9780190211035
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 30. 55 MB
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"The United States is the world leader in incarceration. We imprison 716 people out of every 100,000 - compare that to Canada (118), France (101), Mexico (210), Japan (51)... even Russia can only manage a prison population rate of 472. The total US prison population is over 2.25 million, greater than the population of 100 different countries. In fact, if the US prison system were a country, it would be the 142nd most populous nation on earth, falling between Jamaica and Namibia. But besides comparisons based on sheer numbers, what might we learn if we viewed prison as a country? In A Country Called Prison, Mary Looman and John Carl will use this question as the starting point for a novel thought experiment"--

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